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# Implement your own  call(), apply() and bind() method in JavaScript

It completely makes sense to not reinvent the wheel at your work, but it’s also of great significance sometime to build some smaller wheels yourself for the purpose of learning. Simulating these small wheels in a comprehensive way does enhance your own learning of the same.

“What I Cannot create, I do not understand” — Richard Feynman

So let’s try to simulate the method call, apply and bind in JavaScript.

## Call Method

First of all, let’s take a look at what original call method is.

Example of call:

The above example will give us output welcome Ankur Anand .

So if we analyze the basic principle of a call function from above, we notice these things.

1. Calling the prototype function call changes the pointing of this. i.e Function call in the above became obj.showProfileMessage.

2. Whatever arguments we have passed to showProfileMessage.call should be passed to original showProfileMessage as arg1, arg2,... .

3. Does not cause side effects to obj and showProfileMessage Function, i.e calling call doesn’t modify the original obj or showProfileMessage by any mean.

Let’s try to implement the first step of the idea of call. As the call method prototype method of Function Object. Our custom myOwnCall will be also be attached to the Function prototype.

With that, we have achieved the first step of this, If you are wondering how take a look closely at this.

showProfileMessage.myOwnCall(obj, "welcome ");

What happens when we call something like above, showProfileMessage is an object (Function is also an object in JavaScript) on which we are calling the method myOwnCall inherited from prototype, so inside our myOwnCall method currently the this variable will be pointing to the object that is showProfileMessage and this is what our function reference is, so we added a function referencing to showProfileMessage to new passed obj or this value from the myOwnCall with someOtherThis.fnName = this; and then simply called the function in the next line.

Let’s now implement the second idea of call, to call the function with the passed parameters of variable length.

Before that let’s look at the eval function in JavaScript.

The **eval()** function evaluates JavaScript code represented as a string.

eval takes a string representing a javascript expression, statement, or sequence of statements. The expression can include variables and properties of existing objects.

Let’s get the third idea of the call method. “To not cause any side effect” and that exactly what we have violated till now in our implementation. someOtherThis.fnName = this;

We are adding fnName property to someOtherThis assuming that someOtherThis does not have a property named fnName in advance, we should avoid this. We can use a symbol of es6 but we will avoid it as of now. We will use Math.random to create a unique property id for the object, and should delete this property after execution.

Also if we look at the MDN definition we see that the call function should return a value with the result of specified this and arguments. Also if the value of someOtherThis is null or undefined it should be replaced with a global object (window for browser and global for node.js).

Let’s check our final implementation of the same.

Please note that the above function is still not completely safe from a side effect if, for example, the called function iterates over the keys of ‘this’ it would get a different result with the above implementation than the native implementation. (Thanks to LukaLight for this point).

## Apply Method

Let’s look at the apply method definition as on MDN.

It’s very much same as call method with only difference being its takes an array like object as arguments. So without any further ado, let’s look at its complete implementation.

## Bind Method

Again we will start by looking at the MDN definition of the same.

The general characteristic of the bind function is as follow from mdn.

1. The bind method creates and returns a new function, called a bound function. This bound function wraps the original function object.
1. Look at this line, from mdn definition “arguments to be prepended to the arguments provided to the bound function, when invoking the target function”.

I will try my best to break it down step by step for you.

If we run the above code the output we get is Mr Ankur Anand

So If you look carefully the argument “_Mr_” was provided at the time of creating a bound function bindFullName while argument “Ankur” was provided at the time of invoking the bindFullName which in turn invokes the target function. So the argument “_Mr_” was prepended to the arguments list when we called the bindFullName with an argument “Ankur”. This is what the definition at the MDN for args1, args2, ... means.

Let’s us try to implement the same in our own myOwnBind method.

We are using Array.prototype.slice.call because arguments are not array but an array-like object.

Are we done with bind? No, We have still missed one piece from the mdn definition of the bind for thisArg.

The value is ignored if the bound function is constructed using the new operator.

What it means to say is we need to ignore the passed in this value while creating the bound function when the bound function is called with a new operator. Taking the example given above new bindFullName("Ankur") will give us output asMr Ankur undefined.

MDN has a nice polyfill of bind that takes care of the new operator scenario. What it basically does is set a transit constructor fNOP, so that the bound function and bind()the function call is on the same prototype chain, because calling the bound function with the new operator involves the passing of the prototype chain.

Hope this article proves helpful to you at providing some insight of call, apply and bind in JavaScript as it’s has been for me 😅. If you find any issue or typo please let me know. 😃